The Labor Force Survey is a nationwide survey of households conducted regularly to gather data on the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population. It is primarily geared towards the estimation of the levels of employment in the country.
The Labor Force Survey aims to provide a quantitative framework for the preparation of plans and formulation of policies affecting the labor market. Specifically, the survey is designed to provide statistics on levels and trends of employment, unemployment and underemployment for the Philippines, as a whole and for each of the administrative regions, including provinces and key cities.
Kind of data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of analysis
Person (household survey)
Version 1.0 Final data, for public use.
Class of worker
Nature of employment
For most part, statistics have been limited to the socio-economic data at the national level. It is very evident though that there is the need for information at the local level. In this regard, the LFS sample design has been drawn in such a way that accurate lower level classification would be possible. The 73 provinces, 14 cities of the Philippinesare covered under the following regional groupings.
National Capital Region - Metro Manila Area
2. Quezon City
3. Caloocan City
4. Pasay City
7. Other Metro
Cordillera Administrative Region - CAR
5. Mt. Province
Region I - Ilocos
1. Ilocos Norte
2. Ilocos Sur
3. La Union
Region II - Cagayan Valley
4. Nueva Vizcaya
Region III - Central Luzon
3. Nueva Ecija
Region V - Bicol
2. Camarines Norte
3. Camarines Sur
Region VI - Western Visayas
5. Negros Occidental
Region VII - Central Visayas
3. Negros Oriental
Region VIII - Eastern Visayas
1. Eastern Samar
3. Northern Samar
4. Southern Leyte
Region IX - Western Mindanao
3. Tawi -Tawi
4. Zamboanga del Norte
5 Zamboanga del Sur
Region X - Northern Mindanao
1. Agusan del Norte
2. Agusan del Sur
5. Misamis Occidental
6. Misamis Oriental
Cagayan de Oro City
7. Surigao del Norte
Region XI - Southern Mindanao
1. Davao del Norte
2. Davao del Sur
3. Davao Oriental
4. South Cotabato
5. Surigao del Sur
Region XII - Central Mindanao
1. Lanao del Norte
2. Lanao del Sur
4. Sultan Kudarat
Unit of analysis
Person (household survey)
The survey covered all persons 10 years old and over. Persons who reside in institutions are not covered.
Producers and sponsors
National Economic Development Authority
Technical assistance in sampling design
National Statistical Coordination Board
Technical assistance in questionnaire
The sampling design of the Labor Force Survey adopts that of the Integrated Survey of Households (ISH), which uses a stratified two-stage sampling design. It is prepared by the NEDA Technical Committee on Survey Design and first implemented in 1984. It is the same sampling design used in the ISH modules starting in 1986.
The urban and rural areas of each province are the principal domains of the survey. In addition, the urban and rural areas of cities with a population of 150,000 or more as of 1980 are also made domains of the survey.. These cities are the four cities in Metro Manila (Manila, Quezon City, Pasay and Caloocan; and the cities of Angeles, Olongapo,, Bacolod, Iloilo, Cebu, Zamboanga, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Davao, and Iligan.
The rest of Metro Manila, i.e., Pasig, Makati and the 11 other municipalities, are treated as three separate domains. In the case of Makati, six exclusive villages are identified and samples are selected using a different scheme. These villages are Forbes Park, Bel-Air, Dasmarinas, San Lorenzo, Urdaneta and Magallanes.
SAMPLING UNITS AND SAMPLING FRAME
The primary sampling units (PSUs) under the sample design are the barangays and the households within each sample barangay comprise the secondary sampling units (SSUs). The frame from which the sample barangays are drawn is obtained from the 1980 Census of Population and Housing (CPH). Hence, all the approximately 40,000 barangays covered in the 1980 CPH are part of the primary sampling frame. The sampling frame for the SSUs, that is, the households, is prepared by listing all households in each of the selected sample barangays. The listing operation is conducted regularly in the sample barangays to update the secondary sampling frame from where the sample households are selected.
SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING FRACTION
The size of the sample is envisioned to meet the demand for fairly adequate statistics at the domain level. Taking this need into account and considering cost constraints as well, the decision reached is for a national sample of about 20,000 households. In general, the sample design results in self-weighting samples within domains, with a uniform sampling fraction of 1:400 for urban and 1:600 for rural areas. However, special areas are assigned different sampling fractions so as to obtain “adequate” samples for each. Special areas refer to the urban and rural areas of a province or large city which are small relative to their counterparts.
SELECTION OF SAMPLES
For the purpose of selecting PSUs, the barangay in each domain are arranged by population size (as of the 1980 Census of Population) in descending order and then grouped into strata of approximately equal sizes. Four independent PSUs are drawn with probability proportional to size with complete replacement.
Secondary sampling units are selected systematiclally with a random start.
Deviations from sample design
REPLACEMENT OF SAMPLE HOUSEHOLDS
Replacement of non-responding or transferred sample households is allowed although it is still possible to have non-response cases due to critical peace and order situation or inaccessibility of the selected sample households. If there are unenumerated barangays or sample households, non-response adjustments are utilized.
The response rate for January 1991 LFS was 99.91 percent. The non-response rate of 0.09 percent was due to crticial peace and order situation or inaccessibility of the selected sample or sample households.
Sampling weights, or raising factors are applied to the data obtained from sample households in order to derive estimates for the population. These weights, or raising factors, are no more than the inverse of the joint probability of selection in the two stages of sample selection.
Since the sample is self-weighting within domains, each of the sample households in all of the strata of a given domain is given the same weight, or raising factor.
However, the basic sampling weights are adjusted to account for interview non-response through the introduction of a non-response adjustment factor applied at the domain level.
A more detailed description on weighting procedures is available in the external resources (ISH Bulletin).
Dates of collection
Mode of data collection
Data collection supervision
The Regional Census Officer (RCO) coordinates the Provincial Census Officer (PCO) and provides general supervision to the staff of the provincial offices under his jurisdiction on all administrative matters and field operations relative to the survey.
The PCO supervises the activities of the personnel to ensure that the enumeration is finished according to schedule.
The role of the supervisor was to observe how the interview was being conducted and point out errors to avoid the same mistakes in succeeding interviews; scrutinize accomplished questionnaires for correctness, completeness and consistency of entries; conduct a random reinterview of households; help solve problems encountered by enumerators such as refusals, callbacks; collect EN's reports; ensure that the expected output of the ENs are met; fill up the Supervisor's Report form; and be available if the ENs need assistance in relation to the conduct of the survey.
The items of information presented in the January 1991 Quarterly Labor Force Survey questionnaire were derived from a structured questionnaire covering the demographic and economic characteristics of individuals. The demographic characteristics include age, sex, relationship to household head, marital status, and highest grade completed. The economic characteristics include employment status, occupation, industry, nomal working hours, total hours worked, class of worker, etc.
A sample of the questionnaire iis provided as external resources.
Census Field Worker
Municipal Census Officer
Municipal Census Assistant
Data processing involves two stages: manual processing and machine processing. Manual processing refers to the manual editing and coding of questionnaires. This was done prior to machine processing which entailed code validation, consistency checks as well as tabulation.
Enumeration is a very complex operation and may happen that accomplished questionnaires may have some omissions and implausible or inconsistent entries. Editing is meant to correct these errors.
For purposes of operational convenience, field editing was done. The interviewers were required to review the entries at the end of each interview. Blank items, which were applicable to the respondents, were verified and filled out. Before being transmitted to the regional office, all questionnaires were edited in the field offices.
Coding, the transformation of information from the questionnaire to machine readable form, was likewise done in the field offices.
Machine processing involved all operations that were done with the use of a computer and/or its accessories, that is, from data encoding to tabulation. Coded data are usually in such media as tapes and diskettes. Machine editing is preferred to ensure correctness of encoded information. Except for sample completeness check and verification of geographic identification which are the responsibility of the subject matter division, some imputations and corrections of entries are done mechanically.
National Statistics Office
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Disclaimer and copyrights
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The data user acknowledges that any available intellectual property rights, including copyright in the data are owned by the Philippine National Statistics Office.